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New York

Nickname: The Big Apple, The City That Never sleeps. City of New York

New York City (officially The City of New York) is the most populous city in the United States, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world. For more than a century, it has been one of the world's major centers of commerce and finance. New York City is rated as an alpha world city for its global influences in media, politics, education, entertainment and fashion. The city's cultural centers for arts are among the nation's most influential. The city is a major center for foreign affairs, hosting the headquarters of the United Nations. Residents of the city are known as New Yorkers. The current mayor of New York City is Michael Bloomberg.
New York City comprises five boroughs, each of which is coextensive with a county: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens and Staten Island. With over 8.2 million residents within an area of 322 square miles (830 km²), New York City is the most densely populated major city in the United States.[3][4][5]

Many of the city's neighborhoods and landmarks are known around the world. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, at Ellis Island, a small part of which lies within the city. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been a dominant global financial center since World War II and is home to the New York Stock Exchange. The city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world, including the Empire State Building and the twin towers of the World Trade Center, which were destroyed in the September 11, 2001 attacks.

New York is the birthplace of many American cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art, abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting, and hip hop,[6] punk,[7] salsa, and Tin Pan Alley in music. In 2005, nearly 170 languages were spoken in the city and 36% of its population was born outside the United States.[8][9] With its 24-hour subway and constant bustling of traffic and people, New York is known as "The City That Never Sleeps;" it was first linked with "Gotham" by New York Irving in 1807.

History

Lower Manhattan in 1660, when it was part of New Amsterdam. North is to the right.

Lower Manhattan in 1660, when it was part of New Amsterdam. North is to the right.
The region was inhabited by about 5,000 Lenape Native Americans at the time of its European discovery in 1524[11] by Giovanni da Verrazzano, an Italian explorer in the service of the French crown, who called it "Nouvelle Angoulême" (New Angoulême).[12] European settlement began with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement, later called "Nieuw Amsterdam" (New Amsterdam), on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1614. Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit purchased the island of Manhattan from the Lenape in 1626 for a value of 60 guilders (legend, now disproved, says that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads).[13][14] In 1664, the English conquered the city and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany.[15] At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run (a much more valuable asset at the time) in exchange for the English controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. By 1700, the Lenape population was diminished to 200.[16]

New York City grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule. In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King's College in Lower Manhattan.[17] The city emerged as the theater for a series of major battles known as the New York Campaign during the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress met in New York City and in 1789 the first President of the United States, George New York, was inaugurated at Federal Hall on Wall Street.

Mulberry Street, on Manhattan's Lower East Side, circa 1900.

Mulberry Street, on Manhattan's Lower East Side, circa 1900.
In the 19th century, the city was transformed by immigration and development. A visionary development proposal, the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan, and the 1819 opening of the Erie Canal connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the North American interior.[19] By 1835, New York City had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States. Local politics fell under the domination of Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish immigrants.[20] Public-minded members of the old merchant aristocracy lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which became the first landscaped park in an American city in 1857. A significant free-black population also existed in Manhattan, as well as in Brooklyn. Slaves had been held in New York through 1827, but during the 1830s New York became a center of interracial abolitionist activism in the North.

Anger at military conscription during the American Civil War (1861–1865) led to the Draft Riots of 1863, one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.[21] In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then an independent city), Manhattan and municipalities in the other boroughs.[22] The opening of the New York City Subway in 1904 helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication. However, this development did not come without a price. In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.[23]

Midtown Manhattan, New York City, from Rockefeller Center, 1932.
Midtown Manhattan, New York City, from Rockefeller Center, 1932.

In the 1920s, New York City was a major destination for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South. By 1916, New York City was home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance flourished during the era of Prohibition, coincident with a larger economic boom that saw the skyline develop with the construction of competing skyscrapers. New York City became the most populous city in the world in 1948, overtaking London, which had reigned for over a century. The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello LaGuardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.[24]

Returning World War II veterans and immigrants from Europe created a postwar economic boom and the development of huge housing tracts in eastern Queens. New York emerged from the war unscathed and the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's ascendance as the world's dominant economic power, the United Nations headquarters (built in 1952) emphasizing New York's political influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitating New York's displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.[25] In the 1960s, New York suffered from economic problems, rising crime rates and racial tension, which reached a peak in the 1970s.

The view of New York City showing the Statue of Liberty, Empire State Building, and the World Trade Center, July 2001.

The view of New York City showing the Statue of Liberty, Empire State Building, and the World Trade Center, July 2001.

In the 1980s, a resurgence in the financial industry improved the city's fiscal health. By the 1990s, racial tensions had calmed, crime rates dropped dramatically, and waves of new immigrants arrived from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city's economy and New York's population reached an all-time high in the 2000 census.

The city was one of the sites of the September 11, 2001 attacks, when nearly 3,000 people died in the destruction of the World Trade Center. The Freedom Tower will be built on the site and is scheduled for completion in 2012.[26]

Geography

Satellite image showing the core of the New York metropolitan area. Over 10 million people live in the entire area.

Satellite image showing the core of the New York metropolitan area. Over 10 million people live in the entire area.

New York City is located in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between New York, New York and Boston.[27] The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. Much of New York is built on the three islands of Manhattan, Staten Island, and Long Island, making land scarce and encouraging a high population density.

The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary.[28] The Hudson separates the city from New Jersey. The East River, actually a tidal strait, flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates Manhattan from the Bronx.

The city's land has been altered considerably by human intervention, with substantial land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times. Reclamation is most notable in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s.[29] Some of the natural variations in topography have been evened out, particularly in Manhattan.[30]

The city's land area is 322 sq mi (831.4 km²).[31] The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which at 409.8 ft (124.9 m) above sea level is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine.[32] The summit of the ridge is largely covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.[33]

Climate

Although located at about the same latitude as the much warmer European cities of Naples and Madrid, New York has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification) resulting from prevailing wind patterns that bring cool air from the interior of the North American continent.[34] New York City has cold winters but the city's coastal position keeps temperatures slightly warmer than inland regions, helping to moderate the amount of snow which averages 25 to 35 inches (63.5 to 88.9 cm) each year.[34] New York City has a frost-free period lasting an average of 199 days between seasonal freezes.[34] Spring and autumn in New York City are erratic, and can range from cold and snowy to hot and humid, although they can also be cold or cool and rainy. Summer in New York City is warm and humid, with temperatures of 90 °F (32 °C) or higher recorded on average 18 to 25 days each summer.[34] Though not usually associated with hurricanes, New York City is susceptible to them, notably the 1821 Norfolk and Long Island hurricane which flooded southern Manhattan, and the New England Hurricane of 1938, which brushed the eastern end of the city. The city's long-term climate patterns have been affected by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, a 70-year-long warming and cooling cycle in the Atlantic that influences the frequency and severity of coastal storms in the region.[35]

Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High 70 °F (21.1 °C) 72 °F (22.2 °C) 80 °F (26.7 °C) 87 °F (30.6 °C) 97 °F (36.1 °C) 100 °F (37.8 °C) 102 °F (38.9 °C) 100 °F (37.8 °C) 99 °F (37.2 °C) 85 °F (29.4 °C) 81 °F (27.2 °C) 70 °F (21.1 °C)
Norm High 36 °F
(2.2 °C)
40 °F
(4.4 °C)
48 °F
(8.9 °C)
58 °F
(14.4 °C)
68 °F
(20.0 °C)
77 °F
(25.0 °C)
83 °F (28.3 °C) 81 °F (27.2 °C) 74 °F (23.3 °C) 63 °F (17.2 °C) 52 °F (11.1 °C) 42 °F
(5.6 °C)
Norm Low 23 °F (−5.0 °C) 24 °F (−4.4 °C) 32 °F (0.0 °C) 42 °F
(5.6 °C)
53 °F (11.7 °C) 63 °F (17.2 °C) 68 °F (20.0 °C) 66 °F (18.9 °C) 58 °F (14.4 °C) 47 °F
(8.3 °C)
38 °F (3.3 °C) 28 °F (−2.2 °C)
Rec Low −4 °F (−20.0 °C) −3 °F (−19.4 °C) 5 °F (−15.0 °C) 18 °F (−7.8 °C) 34 °F
(1.1 °C)
44 °F
(6.7 °C)
49 °F (9.4 °C) 47 °F (8.3 °C) 38 °F (3.3 °C) 27 °F (−2.8 °C) 14 °F (−10.0 °C) 0 °F (−17.8 °C)
Precip 3.69
inches (9.37
cm)
2.94
inches (7.47
cm)
4.08
inches (10.36
cm)
4.06
inches (10.31
cm)
4.48
inches (11.38
cm)
3.45
inches (8.76
cm)
4.17
inches (10.59
cm)
4.05
inches (10.29
cm)
4.05
inches (10.29
cm)
3.50
inches (8.89
cm)
4.00
inches (10.16
cm)
3.86
inches (9.80
cm)
Source: The Weather Channel [1]

Environment

Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in United States and gasoline consumption in the city is at the rate the national average was in the 1920s.[36] New York City's dense population and low automobile dependence help make New York among the most energy efficient in the United States.[37] The city's greenhouse gas emission levels are relatively low when measured per capita, at 7.1 metric tons per person, below the national average, 24.5.[38] New Yorkers are collectively responsible for one percent of the nation's total greenhouse gas emissions[38] though comprising 2.7% of the nation's population. The average New Yorker consumes less than half the electricity used by a resident of San Francisco and nearly one-quarter the electricity consumed by a resident of Dallas.[39]
In recent years the city has focused on reducing its environmental impact. Large amounts of concentrated pollution in New York City lead to high incidence of asthma and other respiratory conditions among the city's residents.[40] The city government is required to purchase only the most energy-efficient equipment for use in city offices and public housing.[41] New York has the largest clean air diesel-hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet in the country, and some of the first hybrid taxis.[42] The city is also a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others.[43]

New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed.[44] As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration process, New York is one of only five major cities in the United States with drinking water pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants.[45]

Cityscape

The top of Rockefeller Center in Midtown Manhattan with views of Midtown Manhattan, Lower Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Jersey City
New York
The top of Rockefeller Center in Midtown Manhattan with views of Midtown Manhattan, Lower Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Jersey City

Panorama of Lower Manhattan as viewed from the Staten Island Ferry.
New York
Panorama of Lower Manhattan as viewed from the Staten Island Ferry.

Architecture

The Empire State Building, New York City's current tallest building, viewed from Park Avenue.
The Empire State Building, New York City's current tallest building, viewed from Park Avenue.

The building form most closely associated with New York City is the skyscraper that saw New York buildings shift from the low-scale European tradition to the vertical rise of business districts. New York City has about 4493 skyscrapers, more than any other city in the world. Surrounded mostly by water, the city's residential density and high real estate values in commercial districts saw the city amass the largest collection of individual, free-standing office and residential towers in the world.[46] New York has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles. These include the Woolworth Building (1913), an early gothic revival skyscraper built with massively scaled gothic detailing able to be read from street level several hundred feet below. The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below.[47] The Art Deco design of the Chrysler Building (1930), with its tapered top and steel spire, reflected the zoning requirements. The building is considered by many historians and architects to be New York's finest building, with its distinctive ornamentation such as replicas at the corners of the 61st floor of the 1928 Chrysler eagle hood ornaments and V-shaped lighting inserts capped by a steel spire at the tower's crown.[48] A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its facade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is an important example of green design in American skyscrapers.
The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses, townhouses, and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930.[49] Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835.[50] Unlike Paris, which for centuries was built from its own limestone bedrock, New York has always drawn its building stone from a far-flung network of quarries and its stone buildings have a variety of textures and hues.[51] A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the presence of wooden roof-mounted water towers. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could burst municipal water pipes.[52] Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, including Jackson Heights in Queens, which became more accessible with expansion of the subway.[53]

Parks

Central Park is the most visited city park in the United States.
Central Park is the most visited city park in the United States.

New York City has over 28,000 acres (113 km²) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (22 km) of public beaches.[55] This parkland is augmented by thousands of acres of Gateway National Recreation Area, part of the US National Park System, that lie within city boundaries. The Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, the only wildife refuge in the National Park System, alone is over 9,000 acres (Template:Convert/km²) of marsh islands and water taking up most of Jamaica Bay and included. Manhattan's Central Park, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, is the most visited city park in the United States with 30 million visitors each year - 10 million more than Lincoln Park in Chicago, which is 2nd.[56] Prospect Park in Brooklyn, also designed by Olmsted and Vaux, has a 90 acre (36 hectare) meadow.[57] Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, the city's third largest, was the setting for the 1939 World's Fair and 1964 World's Fair.

Boroughs

New York City is comprised of five boroughs, an unusual form of government used to administer the five constituent counties that make up the city.[58] Throughout the boroughs there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods, many with a definable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States.

The five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx, Staten Island

Economy

Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the world.
Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the world.

New York City is a global hub of international business and commerce and is one of three "command centers" for the world economy (along with London and Tokyo).[66] The city is a major center for finance, insurance, real estate, media and the arts in the United States. The New York metropolitan area had an estimated gross metropolitan product of $952.6 billion in 2005, the largest regional economy in the United States.[67] The city's economy accounts for the majority of the economic activity in the states of New York and New Jersey.[67] Many major corporations are headquartered in New York City, including 44 Fortune 500 companies.[68] New York is also unique among American cities for its large number of foreign corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company.

New York City is home to some of the nation's—and the world's—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for $510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue.

The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street.
The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street.

The New York Stock Exchange, located on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ are the world's first and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured by average daily trading volume and overall market capitalization.[71] Financial services account for more than 35% of the city's employment income.[72] Real estate is a major force in the city's economy, as the total value of all New York City property was $802.4 billion in 2006.[73] The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at $1.1 billion in 2006.[73]

The city's television and film industry is the second largest in the country after Hollywood.[74] Creative industries such as new media, advertising, fashion, design and architecture account for a growing share of employment, with New York City possessing a strong competitive advantage in these industries.[75] High-tech industries like bioscience, software development, game design, and Internet services are also growing, bolstered by the city's position at the terminus of several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines.[76] Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities.

Times Square has been dubbed as the 'Crossroads of the World.'
Times Square has been dubbed as the "Crossroads of the World."

Manufacturing accounts for a large but declining share of employment. Garments, chemicals, metal products, processed foods, and furniture are some of the principal products.[77] The food-processing industry is the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city.[78] Food making is a $5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents, many of them immigrants who speak little English. Chocolate is New York City's leading specialty-food export, with $234 million worth of exports each year.[78]

Tourism is important to New York City, with about 40 million foreign and American tourists visiting each year.[79] Major destinations include the Empire State Building, Ellis Island, Broadway theatre productions, museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and other tourist attractions including Central Park, New York Square Park, Rockefeller Center, Times Square, the Bronx Zoo, New York Botanical Garden, luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues, and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village, the Tribeca Film Festival, and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. The Statue of Liberty is a major tourist attraction and one of the most recognizable icons of the United States.[80] Many of the city's ethnic enclaves, such as Jackson Heights, Flushing, and Brighton Beach are major shopping destinations for first and second generation Americans up and down the East Coast.

Demographics

New York is the most populous city in the United States, with an estimated 2005 population of 8,213,839 (up from 7.3 million in 1990).[59] This amounts to about 40% of New York State's population and a similar percentage of the metropolitan regional population. Over the last decade the city's population has been increasing and demographers estimate New York's population will reach between 9.2 and 9.5 million by 2030.[81]

New York's two key demographic features are its population density and cultural diversity. The city's population density of 26,403 people per square mile (10,194/km²) makes it the most densely populated American municipality with a population above 100,000.[82] Manhattan's population density is 66,940 people per square mile (25,846/km²), highest of any county in the United States.[83][84]

New York City is exceptionally diverse. Throughout its history the city has been a major point of entry for immigrants; the term melting pot was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. Today, 36% of the city's population is foreign-born.[9] Among American cities, this proportion is exceeded only by Los Angeles and Miami.[84] While the immigrant communities in those cities are dominated by a few nationalities, in New York no single country or region of origin dominates. The ten largest countries of origin for modern immigration are the Dominican Republic, China, Jamaica, Guyana, Pakistan, Ecuador, Haiti, Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia, and Russia.[86] About 170 languages are spoken in the city.[8]

The New York metropolitan area is home to the largest Jewish community outside Israel; Tel Aviv proper (non-metro/within municipal limits) has a smaller population than the Jewish population of New York City proper, making New York the largest Jewish community in the world. About 12% of New Yorkers are Jewish or of Jewish descent and roots.[87] It is also home to nearly a quarter of the nation's Indian Americans,[88] and the largest African American community of any city in the United States.
New York City Compared
2000 Census NY City NY State U.S.
Total population 8,213,839 18,976,457 281,421,906
Population, percent change, 1990 to 2000 +9.4% +5.5% +13.1%
Population density 26,403/sq mi 402/sq mi 80/sq mi
Median household income (1999) $38,293 $43,393 $41,994
Bachelor's degree or higher 27% 27% 29%
Foreign born 36% 20% 11%
White 45% 68% 75%
White (non-Hispanic) 37% 62% 67%
Black 28% 16% 12%
Hispanic (any race) 27% 15% 11%
Asian 10% 6% 4%

The five largest ethnic groups as of the 2005 census estimates are: Puerto Ricans, Italians, West Indians, Dominicans and Chinese.[89] The Puerto Rican population of New York City is the largest outside of Puerto Rico.[90] Italians emigrated to the city in large numbers in the early twentieth century. The Irish, the sixth largest ethnic group, also have a notable presence; one in 50 New Yorkers of European origin carry a distinctive genetic signature on their Y chromosomes inherited from Niall of the Nine Hostages, an Irish high king of the fifth century A.D.[91]

New York City has a high degree of income disparity. In 2005 the median household income in the wealthiest census tract was $188,697, while in the poorest it was $9,320.[92] The disparity is driven by wage growth in high income brackets, while wages have stagnated for middle and lower income brackets. In 2006 the average weekly wage in Manhattan was $1,453, the highest and fastest growing among the largest counties in the United States.[93] The borough is also experiencing a baby boom that is unique among American cities. Since 2000, the number of children under age 5 living in Manhattan grew by more than 32%.[94]

Home ownership in New York City is about 33%, much lower than the national average of 69%.[95] Rental vacancy is usually between 3% and 4.5%, well below the 5% threshold defined to be a housing emergency and used to justify the continuation of rent control and rent stabilization. About 33% of rental units are rent-stabilized. Finding housing, particularly affordable housing, in New York City can be more than challenging.[96]

The Manhattan Municipal Building, a 40-story building built to accommodate increased governmental space demands after the 1898 consolidation of New York City.

Transportation

New York City is home to the two busiest rail stations in the U.S., including Grand Central Terminal (seen here).
New York City is home to the two busiest rail stations in the U.S., including Grand Central Terminal (seen here).

Public transit is overwhelmingly the dominant form of travel for New Yorkers.[118] About one in every three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in New York and its suburbs.[119][120] This is in contrast to the rest of the country, where about 90% of commuters drive automobiles to their workplace.[118] New York is the only city in the United States where more than half of all households do not own a car (in Manhattan, more than 75% of residents do not own a car; nationally, the percentage is 8%).[118]

The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by the number of stations in operation, with 468. It is the fourth-largest when measured by annual ridership (1.4 billion passenger trips in 2005).[119] New York's subway is also remarkable because nearly all of the system remains open 24 hours per day (though in some cases with significant differences in routings from the daytime network), in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including London, Paris, New York, New York, and Tokyo. The transportation system in New York City is extensive and complex. It includes the longest suspension bridge in North America,[121] the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel,[122] more than 12,000 yellow cabs[123] and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan.

The TWA Flight Center Building at John F. Kennedy International Airport.

The TWA Flight Center Building at John F. Kennedy International Airport.
New York City's public bus fleet and commuter rail network are the largest in North America.[119] The rail network, which connects the suburbs in the tri-state region to the city, has more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines.[119][124][125] The commuter rail system converges at the two busiest rail stations in the United States, Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station.[126]

New York City is the top international air passenger gateway to the United States.[127] The area is served by three major airports, John F. Kennedy International, Newark Liberty International and LaGuardia, with plans for a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, NY, to be taken over and enlarged by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (which administers the other three airports), as a "reliever" airport to help cope with increasing passenger volume. 100 million travelers used the three airports in 2005 and the city's airspace is the busiest in the nation.[128] Outbound international travel from JFK and Newark accounted for about a quarter of all U.S. travelers who went overseas in 2004.[129]

The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge connecting Brooklyn and Staten Island, is the longest suspension bridge in the United States.
The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge connecting Brooklyn and Staten Island, is the longest suspension bridge in the United States.

New York's high rate of public transit use, 120,000 daily cyclists[130] and many pedestrian commuters makes it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States.[36] Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%.[131]

To complement New York's vast mass transit network, the city also has an extensive web of expressways and parkways, that link New York City to northern New Jersey, Westchester County, Long Island, and southwest Connecticut through various bridges and tunnels. Because these highways serve millions of suburban residents who commute into New York, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic jams that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour. The George New York Bridge is considered one of the world's busiest bridges in terms of vehicle traffic.[132]

Despite New York's reliance on public transit, roads are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan's street grid plan greatly influenced the city's physical development. Several of the city's streets and avenues, like Broadway, Wall Street and Madison Avenue are also used as shorthand in the American vernacular for national industries located there; those being the theater, finance, and advertising organizations, respectively.

Sports

Yankee Stadium is home to the New York Yankees.
Yankee Stadium is home to the New York Yankees.

New York City has teams in the four major North American professional sports leagues, each of which also has its headquarters in the city.

Baseball is the city's most closely followed sport. There have been fourteen World Series championship series between New York City teams, in matchups called Subway Series. New York is one of only five metro areas (Chicago, New York-Baltimore, Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. The city's two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Yankees and the New York Mets, who compete in six games every regular season. The Yankees have enjoyed 26 world titles, while the Mets have taken the Series twice. The city also was once home to the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants) and the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers). Both teams moved to California in 1958. There are also two minor league baseball teams in the city, the Staten Island Yankees and Brooklyn Cyclones.

The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Jets and New York Giants (officially the New York Football Giants), although both teams play their home games in Giants Stadium in nearby New Jersey.

The New York Rangers represent the city in the National Hockey League.

The U.S. Tennis Open (held in Queens) is the fourth and final event of the Grand Slam tennis tournaments.
The U.S. Tennis Open (held in Queens) is the fourth and final event of the Grand Slam tennis tournaments.

In soccer, New York is represented by the Major League Soccer side, Red Bull New York. The "Red Bulls" also play their home games at the Giants Stadium in New Jersey.

The city's National Basketball Association team is the New York Knicks and the city's Women's National Basketball Association team is the New York Liberty. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city.[152] Rucker Park in Harlem is a celebrated court where many professional athletes play in the summer league.

Madison Square Garden, home to the New York Knicks, New York Rangers, and New York Liberty.
Madison Square Garden, home to the New York Knicks, New York Rangers, and New York Liberty.

As a global city, New York supports many events outside these sports. Queens is host of the U.S. Tennis Open, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments. The New York City Marathon is the world's largest, and the 2004-2006 runnings hold the top three places in the marathons with the largest number of finishers, including 37,866 finishers in 2006.[153] The Millrose Games is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Boxing is also a very prominent part of the city's sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year.

Many sports are associated with New York's immigrant communities. Stickball, a street version of baseball, was popularized by youths in working class Italian, German, and Irish neighborhoods in the 1930s. Stickball is still commonly played, as a street in The Bronx has been renamed Stickball Blvd. as tribute to New York's most known street sport. In recent years several amateur cricket leagues have emerged with the arrival of immigrants from South Asia and the Caribbean. Street hockey, football, and baseball are also commonly seen being played on the streets of New York. New York City is often called "The World's Biggest Urban Playground," as street sports are commonly played by people of all ages

For more information on relocating to New York City, New York please visit www.nyc.gov

Information provided from the Wikipedia article found at www.wikipedia.com © 2008 Move In And Out, Inc.

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