Welcome To Cincinnati, Ohio
Cincinnati is a city in southwestern Ohio, in the United States of America, that lies on the Ohio River. It is the county seat of Hamilton County.
As of 2005, Cincinnati's population was 331,310, making it the third largest city in Ohio and the 56th largest in the United States. It has a much larger metropolitan area, commonly called "Greater Cincinnati", which covers parts of Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana. As of July 1, 2005, the U.S. Census Bureau estimates that the Cincinnati-Middletown-Wilmington Combined Statistical Area has a population of 2,113,011 (making it the 20th largest in the country) and is growing at a rate of about one percent annually. Greater Cincinnati is the 25th largest metropolitan area in the nation. It is home to major-league sports, including America's first professional baseball team, a National Football League team, and the historic Cincinnati Masters.
Cincinnati is considered to have been the first major American "boomtown", rapidly expanding in the heart of the country in the early nineteenth century to rival the coastal metropolises in size and wealth. However, by the end of the century, its growth unexpectedly stopped and it was surpassed in population by many other inland cities.
Cincinnati is also known for the distinction of having the largest collection of nineteenth-century Italianate architecture in the country, primarily concentrated in the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood, just north of downtown.
Cincinnati was founded in 1788 by John Cleves Symmes and Colonel Robert Patterson. Surveyor John Filson (also the author of The Adventures of Colonel Daniel Boon) named it "Losantiville" from four terms, each of different language, meaning "The city opposite the mouth of the Licking River." "Ville" is French for "city," "anti" is Greek for "opposite," "os" is Latin for "mouth," and "L" was all that was included of "Licking River."
In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, of which he was a member. The society honored General George Washington, who was considered a latter day Cincinnatus—the Roman general who saved his city, then retired from power to his farm. To this day, Cincinnati in particular, and Ohio in general, are home to a disproportionately large number of descendants of Revolutionary War soldiers who were granted lands in the state.
In 1802, Cincinnati was chartered as a village and David Ziegler (1748-1811), a native of Heidelberg, Germany, who fought in the Revolutionary War became the first Mayor. In 1819, Cincinnati was incorporated as a city. The introduction of steam navigation on the Ohio River in 1811 and the completion of the Miami and Erie Canal helped the city grow to 115,000 citizens by 1850.
On April 1, 1853, Cincinnati's Fire Department became a paid department, the first full-time paid department in the United States, and the first in the world to use steam fire engines.
Cincinnati is located within a climatic transition zone; the area is at the extreme northern limit of the humid subtropical climate. The local climate is basically a blend of the subtropics to the south and the humid continental climate to the north. Evidence of both climatic influences can be found in Cincinnati's landscape material and fauna The USDA Climate Zone map assigns Cincinnati with a 6a/6b hardiness zone rating (zone 1 being the coldest and zone 11 being the warmest). More mild "microclimates" of a 7a/b rating may be found, particularly along the Ohio River basin. Cincinnati, which is in the Bluegrass Region of the Interior Low Plateau of Ohio, generally receives less snow and has a longer growing season than much of the rest of Ohio.
Cincinnati OH average Temperatures and Precipitation
The summers in Cincinnati are generally hot and humid with cool evenings. The mean annual temperature is 54 °F (12 °C), with an average annual snowfall of 16 inches (58.4 cm) and an average annual rainfall of 41 inches (1,040 mm). The wettest seasons are the spring and summer, although rainfall is fairly constant all year round. During the winter, particularly in January and February, several days of snow can be expected, allowing for winter sports, although snowfall is lighter than in most of Ohio. January temperatures range from 22 to 39 °F (-6 to 4 °C) and July temperatures range from 66 to 87 °F (19 to 30 °C).The highest recorded temperature was 103.0 °F (39.4 °C) on August 17, 1988, and the lowest recorded temperature was -25°F (-32 °C) on January 18, 1978.
Cincinnati Public Schools operates the public schools in the city, including 16 high schools, each accepting students on a city-wide basis. The Cincinnati area is also home to a number of Catholic high schools, most of which are single-sex. The city is also home to a variety of other private schools, some of which are secular.
The Cincinnati Public School (CPS) district is spread across the city plus Amberley Village, Cheviot, Golf Manor, most of the city of Silverton, parts of Fairfax and Wyoming, and parts of Anderson, Columbia, Delhi, Green, and Springfield townships, with a total area of about 90 square miles. It is the third-largest public school district in the state. CPS opened the first public Montessori elementary school in the country in 1975. The district now offers 21 high schools with specific focuses, and 22 elementary magnet schools offering nine programs such as the arts, foreign language, and Montessori and Paideia teaching styles. The district's $985 million Facilities Master Plan, launched in 2002, is financing the building or renovation of more than a dozen schools; the first new school resulting from this plan—Rockdale Academy—was completed in January 2005.
Colleges and Universities
The University of Cincinnati (UC), part of Ohio's state higher education system, was founded in 1819. The university has an enrollment of more than 34,000 students and grants degrees at all levels, from associate through doctorate, in a complete range of fields. The university includes a main academic campus, a medical campus, a branch campus in suburban Blue Ash, and a rural branch campus in Clermont County, east of Cincinnati. The university is a nationally recognized research institution known for its professional schools, notably the colleges of medicine, engineering, law, business, applied science, and design, architecture, art, and planning. Cooperative education originated at the University of Cincinnati, in 1906; other UC firsts include the development of the oral polio vaccine and the first antihistamine.
Cincinnati is also home to Xavier University, a Jesuit institution founded in 1831, which offers undergraduate and graduate programs in such areas as theology, criminal justice, psychology, business, education, English, health services administration, nursing, and occupational therapy.
Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, a graduate rabbinical seminary, was founded in 1875 and is the nation's oldest institution of higher Jewish education. In addition to its Rabbinical School, the College-Institute includes Schools of Graduate Studies, Education, Jewish Communal Service, Sacred Music, and Biblical Archaeology. Branch campuses are located in Los Angeles, New York, and Jerusalem.
The Athenaeum of Ohio is an accredited center of ministry education and formation within the Roman Catholic tradition. Other colleges in Cincinnati are the Art Academy of Cincinnati, a small independent college of art and design; The Union Institute, designed for adults who have the desire to assume a significant measure of personal responsibility for planning and executing their degree programs; and Cincinnati Bible College and Seminary.
Colleges and universities in the metropolitan area include Miami University in Oxford, offering specialized studies in more than 100 academic majors and pre-professional programs, and particularly known for its business school; Northern Kentucky University; Thomas More College; St. Thomas Institute; and College of Mount St. Joseph.
Vocational and technical education is available at a variety of institutions such as Cincinnati State Technical and Community College, and Gateway Community and Technical College.
The Cincinnati medical community, a regional health care center, has gained prominence for education, treatment, and research. The University of Cincinnati maintains the oldest teaching hospital/medical center in the country and is the place where Albert Sabin developed the first polio vaccine and Leon Goldman performed the first laser surgery for the removal of cataracts. In 1994, University Hospital joined with The Christ Hospital to form the Health Alliance, which consists of six hospitals—University Hospital; Christ Hospital; Jewish Hospital, where Henry Heimlich, when he was chief of surgery there, developed his famous maneuver; Fort Hamilton Hospital; and St. Luke Hospitals East and West—in Cincinnati and northern Kentucky. Children's Hospital Medical Center, one of the nation’s largest and most respected pediatric hospitals, also operates the largest pediatric residency program and developed the first heart-lung machine.
More than 30 hospitals serve the Cincinnati area. Among the general care and specialized facilities are the Shriners Burns Institute, St. Elizabeth Medical Center, Good Samaritan, Bethesda, Deaconess, Providence, and St. Francis-St. George hospitals.
A tour of Cincinnati can begin downtown at Fountain Square, the site of the Tyler Davidson Fountain, one of the city's most revered landmarks, which was made in Munich, Germany, and erected in 1871. Several historic monuments, including statues in honor of three United States presidents—James A. Garfield, William Henry Harrison, and Abraham Lincoln—are also located in the downtown area.
Eden Park in Mt. Adams, one of Cincinnati's oldest hillside neighborhoods and named after President John Quincy Adams, provides a panoramic view of the city and of northern Kentucky across the Ohio River. In Eden Park the Irwin M. Krohn Conservatory maintains several large public greenhouses showcasing more than 3,500 plant species: the Palm House features palm, rubber, and banana trees in a rainforest setting with a 20-foot waterfall; the Tropical House has ferns, bromeliads, begonias, chocolate and papaya trees, and vanilla vine; the Floral House has seasonal floral displays among its permanent collection of orange, kumquat, lemon, and grapefruit trees; the Desert Garden is home to yuccas, agaves, cacti, and aloes; and the Orchid House displays 17 genera of orchids.
The Cincinnati Zoo, opened in 1872, is the second oldest zoo in the United States. Set on 75 acres, the zoo is home to 510 animal species as well as 3,000 plant varieties. The zoo is recognized worldwide for the breeding of animals in captivity; the zoo park introduced the nation's first insect world exhibit. The zoo features such rare animals as the white Bengal tiger, Sumatran rhinoceros, and lowland gorilla, as well as manatees, alligators and crocodiles, orangutans, elephants, giraffes, and polar bears. The zoo's newest permanent exhibit, Wolf Woods, opened in May 2005. Here, visitors can view the rare Mexican gray wolf and other North American animals, including river otters, gray fox, wild turkey, striped skunk, and thickbilled parrots.
Historic houses open for public viewing include the former homes of Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin; and William Howard Taft, 27th President of the United States. The Harriet Beecher Stowe House displays artifacts of African American history, featuring documents from the Beecher family. The William Howard Taft National Historic Site was Taft's birthplace and boyhood home; several rooms have been restored to reflect Taft's family life. Dayton Street on Cincinnati's West End features restored nineteenth-century architecture. The Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum, a national historic landmark, contains 1,000 labeled trees on 733 landscaped acres lined with statuary and sculpture.
Paramount's Kings Island Theme Park, 20 minutes north of Cincinnati, features more than 80 amusement attractions and is known nationally for its daring rollercoaster’s and water rides, among them The Beast, the world's longest wooden rollercoaster. The nearby Beach Waterpark has nearly 50 waterslides and rides.
Sharon Woods Village, in nearby Sharonville, is an outdoor museum of restored nineteenth-century southwestern Ohio buildings. Meier's Wine Cellar, Ohio's oldest and largest winery, offers tours.
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